2009年5月4日米国疾病センターアップデート和訳させていただきました。取り急ぎにて意訳や省略は御勘弁ください。

藤田歯科医院では徹底したユニバーサルプリコーションを行っておりますが連休後の感染予防のためもし海外旅行にいらした方は申告願います。

 

 

H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) and You*

What is H1N1 (swine flu)?
H1N1 (referred to as “swine flu” early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. Other countries, including Mexico and Canada, have reported people sick with this new virus. This virus is spreading from person-to-person, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread.

Why is this new H1N1 virus sometimes called “swine flu”?
This virus was originally referred to as “swine flu” because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs in North America. But further study has shown that this new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and avian genes and human genes. Scientists call this a “quadruple reassortant” virus.

米国では2009年4月に発見された新型ウィルスは季節性の既存ウィルス同様人から人に感染する。またこのウィルスは北米にて普段豚に感染しそれがゆえ豚インフルエンザと呼ばれるようになったが最近の研究で北米の豚に感染するウィルスとは遺伝子構造が異なることがわかった。それはヨーロッパ、アジアの豚由来の遺伝子と人由来の遺伝子を有しているからである。
 

Novel H1N1 Flu in Humans


 

Are there human infections with this H1N1 virus in the U.S.? アメリカにてこの新型ウィルス感染の人は存在するか?
Yes. Cases of human infection with this H1N1 influenza virus were first confirmed in the U.S. in Southern California and near Guadalupe County, Texas. The outbreak intensified rapidly from that time and more and more states have been reporting cases of illness from this virus. An updated case count of confirmed novel H1N1 flu infections in the United States is kept at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/investigation.htm . CDC and local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation.

感染者はテキサス州とカリフォルニア州で確認されている。その後急速に感染の拡大が確認されCDCと地域の保健所は共同でこの事態に対応しているものである。

 

Is this new H1N1 virus contagious?  この新型ウィルスは急速に感染拡大するか?
CDC has determined that this new H1N1 virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human. However, at this time, it is not known how easily the virus spreads between people.

CDCはこのウィルスは急速に人から人に拡大するさらに簡単に人間の間で拡大することと定義ずけた。

What are the signs and symptoms of this virus in people?   感染したときの症状の特徴は?
The symptoms of this new H1N1 flu virus in people are similar to the symptoms of seasonal flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. A significant number of people who have been infected with this virus also have reported diarrhea and vomiting.  Also, like seasonal flu, severe illnesses and death has occurred as a result of illness associated with this virus.

季節性のウィルスに似た症状で熱発、せき、のど痛、鼻水、体痛、頭痛、寒気、だるさの症状がでる。感染した人の報告で特徴は下痢、吐き気、嘔吐がある。これらの症状が重篤になると致死的となる。

How severe is illness associated with this new H1N1 virus?  このウィルスと重篤症状の関連は?
It’s not known at this time how severe this virus will be in the general population. CDC is studying the medical histories of people who have been infected with this virus to determine whether some people may be at greater risk from infection, serious illness or hospitalization from the virus. In seasonal flu, there are certain people that are at higher risk of serious flu-related complications. This includes people 65 years and older, children younger than five years old, pregnant women, and people of any age with chronic medical conditions. It’s unknown at this time whether certain groups of people are at greater risk of serious flu-related complications from infection with this new virus. CDC also is conducting laboratory studies to see if certain people might have natural immunity to this virus, depending on their age.

一般的な人の間でどれだけ重篤症状を引き起こすかあまり分かってない。CDCではどのような人でリスクが高くなるか履歴を通じ調査中である。季節性のインフルエンザでは65歳以上、5歳以下、妊婦、慢性的な疾病をかかえた方はリスクが高くなることはわかっているがこのウィルスでこれらの人がリスクが高くなるかどうかは未知である。

 

How does this new H1N1 virus spread?   どのように新型ウィルスは感染拡大するか?
Spread of this H1N1 virus is thought to be happening in the same way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing by people with influenza. Sometimes people may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

季節性インフルエンザと同じように拡大すると考えられ、感染した人のせき、くしゃみを通じ人から人へ 時にはインフルエンザを触ったり、鼻や口を触って感染する。

How long can an infected person spread this virus to others? どのくらいの期間感染した人はこのウィルスをまき散らすか?
At the current time, CDC believes that this virus has the same properties in terms of spread as seasonal flu viruses. With seasonal flu, studies have shown that people may be contagious from one day before they develop symptoms to up to 7 days after they get sick.  Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods. CDC is studying the virus and its capabilities to try to learn more and will provide more information as it becomes available.

季節のインフルエンザ同様症状が出る一日前から一週間以上と考えられている。子供は特に長くなるかもしれない。CDCではこのウィルスの可能性についてさらに調査中でありわかりしだい情報提供する。

Exposures Not Thought to Spread New H1N1 Flu


 

Can I get infected with this new H1N1 virus from eating or preparing pork? 豚を食べて感染するの?
No. H1N1 viruses are not spread by food. You cannot get this new HIN1 virus from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe.

いいえ。調理された豚から感染はしません。

Is there a risk from drinking water? 飲用水のりすくは?
Tap water that has been treated by conventional disinfection processes does not likely pose a risk for transmission of influenza viruses. Current drinking water treatment regulations provide a high degree of protection from viruses. No research has been completed on the susceptibility of the novel H1N1 flu virus to conventional drinking water treatment processes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that free chlorine levels typically used in drinking water treatment are adequate to inactivate highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. It is likely that other influenza viruses such as novel H1N1 would also be similarly inactivated by chlorination. To date, there have been no documented human cases of influenza caused by exposure to influenza-contaminated drinking water.

上水では塩素処理がなされていればH5N1ウィルスでも不活性化できると報告され新型ウィルスも同様と考えられるが、一方でウィルスが混在した飲用水を飲んで感染した人がいることもすでに報告されている。

Can the new H1N1 flu virus be spread through water in swimming pools, spas, water parks, interactive fountains, and other treated recreational water venues?

プールやスパ、水の公園、噴水などで感染拡大するの?
Influenza viruses infect the human upper respiratory tract. There has never been a documented case of influenza virus infection associated with water exposure. Recreational water that has been treated at CDC recommended disinfectant levels does not likely pose a risk for transmission of influenza viruses. No research has been completed on the susceptibility of the H1N1 influenza virus to chlorine and other disinfectants used in swimming pools, spas, water parks, interactive fountains, and other treated recreational venues. However, recent studies have demonstrated that free chlorine levels recommended by CDC (1–3 parts per million [ppm or mg/L] for pools and 2–5 ppm for spas) are adequate to disinfect avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. It is likely that other influenza viruses such as novel H1N1 virus would also be similarly disinfected by chlorine.

人の呼吸器を通じて感染をおこすウィルスであるから水の関連の施設での感染拡大の報告はない。塩素が適正レベルであれば(CDC推奨レベル)問題はない。

Can H1N1 influenza virus be spread at recreational water venues outside of the water? 再生水の施設の外では感染するの?
Yes, recreational water venues are no different than any other group setting. The spread of this novel H1N1 flu is thought to be happening in the same way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing of people with influenza. Sometimes people may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

他のウィルス同様せきやくしゃみで感染するのでウィルスを触ったり、感染者の鼻や口を触って感染する。

 

 

Prevention & Treatment 予防と管理


 

What can I do to protect myself from getting sick? どうやって感染予防するの?
There is no vaccine available right now to protect against this new H1N1 virus. There are everyday actions that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza.

ワクチンはまだない。普段の行いで拡大と感染を既存インフルエンザどうよう予防するしかない。

Take these everyday steps to protect your health:

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.
  • せき、くしゃみはティッシュでカバーし使い終わったティッシュはごみ箱のすてる。
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.
  • 普段から手をよく洗い、とくにくしゃみや咳をしたら洗う。アルコール含有のハンドクリーナーは有用である。
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.
  • 目や鼻、口を手でさわらない。触るとその経路でウィルスを伝藩する。
  • Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
  • 感染者と接触しない。
  • Stay home if you are sick for 7 days after your symptoms begin or until you have been symptom-free for 24 hours, whichever is longer. This is to keep from infecting others and spreading the virus further.
  • もし感染し症状がでたらその日から7日間家をでないか、症状がおさまり24時間後までは家をでない。

Other important actions that you can take are: 他にあなたにできる行動は。

  • Follow public health advice regarding school closures, avoiding crowds and other social distancing measures.
  • 公共のアドバイスにしたがい混雑している場所や公衆をさける。
  • Be prepared in case you get sick and need to stay home for a week or so; a supply of over-the-counter medicines, alcohol-based hand rubs, tissues and other related items might could be useful and help avoid the need to make trips out in public while you are sick and contagious.
  • あなたが感染したとき一週間家にいることに備え薬局の売り薬やティッシュ、アルコール含有の手拭きをしっかり準備し、いざ感染起こしたときの無用な公衆の面前への外出を避ける。

What is the best way to keep from spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing?咳くしゃみからのウィルスの拡大を防ぐ最良の方法は?
If you are sick, limit your contact with other people as much as possible. If you are sick, stay home for 7 days after your symptoms begin or until you have been symptom-free for 24 hours, whichever is longer. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. Put your used tissue in the waste basket. Then, clean your hands, and do so every time you cough or sneeze.もし感染し症状がでたらその日から7日間家をでないか、症状がおさまり24時間後までは家をでない。せき、くしゃみはティッシュでカバーし使い終わったティッシュはごみ箱のすてる。 もしくしゃみ、咳したらすぐ手は洗う。

 

What is the best technique for washing my hands to avoid getting the flu? 手あらいの最良の技は?
Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs. Wash with soap and water or clean with alcohol-based hand cleaner. CDC recommends that when you wash your hands -- with soap and warm water -- that you wash for 15 to 20 seconds. When soap and water are not available, alcohol-based disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers may be used. You can find them in most supermarkets and drugstores. If using gel, rub your hands until the gel is dry. The gel doesn't need water to work; the alcohol in it kills the germs on your hands.

CDCでは石鹸と温水の手洗いを推奨し、アルコール含有のハンドクリーナーも勧めている。少なくとも15−20秒洗いましょう。もし手洗いできなければアルコール含有の手拭きでもかまわない。

手洗い後あるいは手拭き後をしっかり手を拭いて乾燥させましょう。

Contamination & Cleaning


 

How long can influenza virus remain viable on objects (such as books and doorknobs)? インフルエンザウィルスはどのくらい拭いた表面で生きてるの?
Studies have shown that influenza virus can survive on environmental surfaces and can infect a person for up to 2-8 hours after being deposited on the surface.

2時間から8時間と報告されてます。

What kills influenza virus? 消毒効果のあるものは何?
Influenza virus is destroyed by heat (167-212°F [75-100°C]). In addition, several chemical germicides, including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, detergents (soap), iodophors (iodine-based antiseptics), and alcohols are effective against human influenza viruses if used in proper concentration for a sufficient length of time. For example, wipes or gels with alcohol in them can be used to clean hands. The gels should be rubbed into hands until they are dry.

摂氏75度以上であること、あるいは適正濃度の塩素、オキシドール、イソジン、アルコール が消毒効果がある。

What surfaces are most likely to be sources of contamination?   どの表面が感染源となるか?
Germs can be spread when a person touches something that is contaminated with germs and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth. Droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person move through the air. Germs can be spread when a person touches respiratory droplets from another person on a surface like a desk, for example, and then touches their own eyes, mouth or nose before washing their hands.

くしゃみや咳からでた飛沫は空気中を移動し机のようなものの表面に付着した飛沫をさわったり、自分自身で触った手で目や口鼻をさわりウィルスが拡大する。

How should waste disposal be handled to prevent the spread of influenza virus? どのように捨てるものを処理しウィルスの拡大を防ぐか。
To prevent the spread of influenza virus, it is recommended that tissues and other disposable items used by an infected person be thrown in the trash. Additionally, persons should wash their hands with soap and water after touching used tissues and similar waste.

くしゃみや咳した後のティッシュはごみ箱に捨ててそれを触った手はすぐ石鹸で洗うようにする。

What household cleaning should be done to prevent the spread of influenza virus? 家庭においてウィルスの拡大を防ぐために。
To prevent the spread of influenza virus it is important to keep surfaces (especially bedside tables, surfaces in the bathroom, kitchen counters and toys for children) clean by wiping them down with a household disinfectant according to directions on the product label.

テーブルや浴室、キッチンカウンター、子供のおもちゃなどの表面は消毒剤で拭くのが望ましい。

How should linens, eating utensils and dishes of persons infected with influenza virus be handled?感染者の食べたあとのお皿の処理は?
Linens, eating utensils, and dishes belonging to those who are sick do not need to be cleaned separately, but importantly these items should not be shared without washing thoroughly first.

健全な方の食後の皿とは分けて洗う必要はない。がぴったり皿どうしがぴったりくっついている状態では洗わないこと。また洗ったあとは手を石鹸で洗う。
Linens (such as bed sheets and towels) should be washed by using household laundry soap and tumbled dry on a hot setting. Individuals should avoid “hugging” laundry prior to washing it to prevent contaminating themselves. Individuals should wash their hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub immediately after handling dirty laundry.

Eating utensils should be washed either in a dishwasher or by hand with water and soap.

 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348, 24 Hours/Every Day -
cdcinfo@cdc.gov

 

2009年5月1日分

本日の米国疾病予防管理センター(CDC)の最新報告掲載します。豚インフルエンザを英語でSwine  flu あるいはH1N1 fluと表記します。

掲載英語の通り未だ仮の見解とはしておりますが予防のためのマスクとタミフルなど抗ウィルス剤の連邦での安定供給を講じるとしてます。

赤字の部分に注目しましょう。まず情報収集をすること。またインフルエンザが主に咳やくしゃみで拡大すると考えられるとしてます。

手で目や鼻、口をいじるとその経路で感染が拡大するとしてます。一方、アルコール消毒が有効で手洗い後の手のアルコール消毒を勧めています。

また自己の感染を認識したら自宅をでないよう注意喚起してます。

2009.5月1日藤田 裕 記

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Update

 

H1N1 Flu website last updated May 1, 2009, 1:30 AM ET

U.S. Human Cases of H1N1 Flu Infection
(As of April 30, 2009, 10:30 AM ET)
States
# of laboratory confirmed cases
Deaths
Arizona 1  
California 14  
Indiana 1  
Kansas 2  
Massachusetts 2  
Michigan 1  
Nevada 1  
New York 50  
Ohio 1  
South Carolina
10
 
Texas
26
1
TOTAL COUNTS 109 cases 1 death
International Human Cases of Swine Flu Infection
See: World Health Organization

In response to an intensifying outbreak in the United States and internationally caused by a new influenza virus of swine origin, the World Health Organization raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 5 on April 29, 2009. A Phase 5 alert is a “strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short.”

The United States Government has declared a public health emergency in the United States. CDC’s response goals are to reduce transmission and illness severity, and provide information to help health care providers, public health officials and the public address the challenges posed by this emergency. CDC is issuing and updating interim guidance daily in response to the rapidly evolving situation. CDC’s Division of the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) continues to send antiviral drugs, personal protective equipment, and respiratory protection devices to all 50 states and U.S. territories to help them respond to the outbreak. The swine influenza A (H1N1) virus is susceptible to the prescription antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. In addition, the Federal Government and manufacturers have begun the process of developing a vaccine against

 

What You Can Do to Stay Healthy

·          Stay informed. This website will be updated regularly as information becomes available.

·          Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.

·          Take everyday actions to stay healthy.

o    Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.

o    Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hands cleaners are also effective.

o    Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread that way.

o    Stay home if you get sick. CDC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.

·          Follow public health advice regarding school closures, avoiding crowds and other social distancing measures.

·          Develop a family emergency plan as a precaution. This should include storing a supply of food, medicines, facemasks, alcohol-based hand rubs and other essential supplies.

·          Call 1-800-CDC-INFO for more information


詳細不明な点は当医院スタッフまで